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Roman names and nicknames


Ovid (Publius Ovid Naso) had the nickname Naso, i.e. “conk”. So the poet had to be distinguished by a large nose size.

As we know, the Romans had a lot of names that were given because of either the family they came from or because of the characteristics they had. At some point in Rome there was a fashion for having a surname of several members. A person with a lot of names and nicknames was respected and perceived as someone high-ranking.

The linguist Tadeusz Milewski hypothesized that in the original period, when the Italics lived north of the Alps in the vicinity of the Celts, in the Italian group there was a system of complex names, analogous to that found in the Celtic group and in other Indo-European languages. This system disappeared only after the arrival of the Italian tribes in Italy; this happened during the second millennium BC; however, under the influence of the Liguria, a system of single-member, uncomplex, largely foreign, non-Indo-European (including Etruscan) names was developed, which transformed into a binomial name, including the name (praenomen) and family name (nomen), and finally at the beginning of the 1st century BC – into a three-name system, consisting of the two abovementioned elements and a nickname (cognomen).

Name structure


Originally, Roman names consisted of only one member. It is worth mentioning Remus or Romulus here. However, this simplicity did not stand the test of time and in the next generation, one can find two-part names, as evidenced by, for example, the names of the successors of Romulus, Servius Tulius, Numa Pompiliusz or Ankus Marcius. The two-part name consisted of the first name (praenomen) and the maiden name (gentilicium or nomen gentile).

In the Republic there was a three-part structure, adding a nickname. The Roman now had a first name, surname and surname (cognomen). This is how it looked in reality:

  • Caius (praenomen) Julius (gentilicium) Caesar ( cognomen)
  • Marcus (praenomen) Vipsanius (gentilicium) Agrippa ( cognomen)

During the republic, the custom of broadcasting the fourth term developed, where the second nickname (agnomen) was added. It was received, among others, by Publius Cornelius Scipio, the winner of Hannibal from closet who had the right to wear the Africanus agnomen. This nickname was inherited by the eldest son. Over time, however, this custom disappeared.

It was also popular to mention the name of the father (praenomen) or sometimes grandfather, uncle, etc. In principle, shortly after gentilicium preceded by: M. Vibius MfLongus. It was the so-called descent.

The full name was not used in interpersonal contacts, but was limited to one of the members. Between family and close friends, it was usually limited to praenomen. In other circumstances, the Romans addressed each other using cognomena with praenomen.

Roman name (praenomen)


In the early centuries of the Roman Republic, about three dozen names were in use, of which only half were often used. This number gradually decreased to about eighteen names in the first century BC, of ​​which about a dozen were in use.

Male names:

Agrippa (Agr.)

Appius (Ap.)

Aulus (A.)

C (K) aeso (K.)

Decimus (D.)

Faustus (F.)

Gaius (C.)

Gnaeus (Cn.)

Hostus

Lucius (L.)

Mamercus (Mam.)

Manius (M ‘.)

Marcus (M.)

Mettius

Nonus

Numerius (N.)

Octavius ​​(Oct.)

Opiter.

Paullus

Postumus (Post.)

Proculus (Pro.)

Publius (P.)

Quintus (Q.)

Septimus

Sertor (Sert.)

Servius (Ser.)

Sextus (Sex.)

Spurius (S.)

Statius (St.)

Tiberius (Ti.)

Titus (T.)

Tullus

Vibius (V.)

Volesus (Vol.)

Vopiscus (Vop.)

However, the most popular Roman names were: Aulus, Numerius, Postumus, Publius, Caius, Gnaeus, Quintus, Decimus, Servius, Sextus, Lucius, Titus. The Romans could also be prosaic – they called their sons: Primus, Secundus, Tertius etc. (First second Third…); there were also Septimus (Seventh) and Oktavus (Eighth).

Some names were closely related to particular families, and so, for example, the name Appius was kept only in the Klaudiusz family. If someone stained a family’s name with a shameful act, his name was forever excluded from that family. This fate met the name Lucius in the family of Claudius.

A group of the oldest names lost their personal functions before the classical period in which they functioned as cognomina (nicknames). They were: Agrippa (Agrippa), Faustus (Faust), Hostus, Lar (from the name of guardian spirits Lar; Laris), Opiter (from the former avo-pater, “a child who was born after the death of his father and his father’s grandfather”, cf. avus – “grandfather”, pater – “father”), Paullus (Paul), Postumus (“child born after the death of his father, tombstone “, see post -” after “), Proculus (Procul), Vibius, Volero, Volusus, Vopisucs (“a twin who remained alive after the death of the other twin”).

The daughters took the father’s maiden surname as a first name, e.g. the daughter of Marek Tuliusz Cicero was named Tulia.

Women’s names:

Appia (Ap.)

Aula (A.)

Caesula

Decima (D.)

Fausta (F.)

Gaia (C.)

Gnaea (Cn.)

Hosta (H.)

Lucia (L.)

Maio (Mai.)

Mamerca (Mam.)

Mania (M ‘.)

Marcia (M.)

Maxima

Mettia

Mino

Nona

Numeria (N.)

Octavia (Oct.)

Paulla

Postuma (Post.)

Prima

Procula (Pro.)

Publia (P.)

Quarta

Quinta (Q.)

Secunda (Seq.)

Septima

Servia (Ser.)

Sexta (Sex.)

Spuria (Sp.)

Statia (St.)

Tertia

Tiberia (Ti.)

Titia (T.)

Tulla

Vibia (V.)

Volusa (Vol.)

Vopisca (Vop.)

Roman surname (gentilicium)


The second member of the Roman citizen’s name was the family name (nomen gentilicium). It was actually the name of the strain (gens) more or less (in extreme cases – not at all) branched into individual families. The largest strains could have up to tens of thousands of people, so reasoning about the relationship of two citizens based on the fact that they carry the same family name is very risky. For example, the relationship between Gajusz Waleriusz Katullus and Marek Waleriusz Marcjalis was probably zero, despite the obvious affiliation of both to the Valerius family (gens Valeria).

A large group of Roman surnames is in fact patronymic. These include, for example, Marcius (“Mark’s son”), as well as others created using the suffix -io- (which also created paternal forms in some Greek and Celtic dialects ) “from AulusAulius, with SextusSextius, with PostumusPostumius. Place names created with the suffixes -anus and -inus are less numerous, e.g. from AbellaAbellanus; from AriciaAricinus. Many names were of foreign origin, including e.g. Pelignian on -avus ( Atavus, Accavus), Etruscan to -na, -enna, -other , -erna (Porsina, Porsenna, Vibenna, Spurinna, Perperna, Mastarna). Place-based and foreign-language surnames were influenced by native patronymic names on -ius and the result is the emergence of place-surnames such as Tu sculanius from Tusculum or Patavinius from Patavium or surnames of Etruscan origin such as Tarquinius (from Etruscan Tarcna ) or Larcius (from Etruscan Larce).

The surname is younger than the first name, hence a lot of them, especially those denoting professions, can be etymologically associated with normal Latin words. For example, the surname Vitruvius is associated with the noun vitrum (“glass”), the surname Porcius with the noun porcus (” pork “), surname Ovid with ovis (sheep) etc.

As mentioned above, only men had names, while women had surnames that were female forms of the surname of the father’s family. This first and last name was the first member of the woman’s name, and for a very long time until the end of the republic, basically the only one. When the father of the family had more daughters, the younger was nicknamed Minor (“Younger”), the next Tertia (“Third”), and so on by subsequent numerals.

And so Cicero’s first wife was called Terentia (Terentia), which means that she came from the Terentius family. The second was Publilia, from the Publiliusz family. The daughter of Cicero (the Tulliusz family) was Tullia, the daughter of Caesar (the Juliusz family) Julia, the daughter of a citizen named Klaudiusz – Klaudia, etc. To avoid mistakes, the surname of the woman was supplemented by her husband’s nickname genitive, e.g. Terentia Ciceronis=”Coterie (wife) of Cicero”.

Roman nickname (cognomen)


The last part of the name, or nickname, began to be broadcast in the days of the republic, when families began to grow significantly. Initially, only patrician families adopted the nickname. The first nicknames were associated with the main classes of the Romans at that time.

Nicknames were often associated with plants, which only confirms our belief in the agricultural nature of the original Roman society. For example, the Cicero family took its name from peas (cicer), and Fabius from bob (faba). Still other nicknames were associated with some characteristic of a family member, e.g. Cincinnatus – curly or Cato – clever.

Cognomen was mainly intended to distinguish between different branches belonging to a given family. For example, the nickname was a kind of description of the trait (Barbatus, Claudus), it could also determine the origin of a person (Gallus, Ligus, Sabunus). Sometimes he pointed to certain personal qualities like Naso or Capito, or pointed to a person’s temperament (Severus, Benignus).

Nickname

Translation

Nickname

Translation

Agelatus

never smiling

Longiunus

away

Balbin

stutterer

Lukkulus

wood, grove

Brokchus

toothed

Magnus

great

Brutus

stupid

Maximus

largest

Cato

smart

Mektator

killer

Cecilius

blind man

Language

nososy

Cepio

onion seller

Nerva

hard

Cincinnatus

curly

Piso

threshing

Crassus

fat

Postumus

tombstone

Cunctator

delaying

Pulcher

beautiful

Flaccus

lethargic

Rufus

red

Flakkus

with big ears

Ruso

rural simpleton

Flavius ​​

yellow, blondas

Scewola

left-handed

Galba

abdominals

Saturninus

belonging to Saturn

Geta

from the end of the world

Scaurus

with swollen feet

Grakchus

jackdaw

Strabo

cross-eyed

Caligula

shoe

Sulla

calf

Calvus

bald

Verres

pig (behavior)

Caracalla

coat

Verrucosus

mottled

Karbo

burned to ashes

Varon

crooked legs

Katullus

male

Additional nickname (agnomen)


In addition to nicknames purchased by inheritance, a Roman citizen could get an additional nickname (agnomen) in two ways:

  • by adoption; the adopted son took then the first name, surname and surname of his foster father, and as an additional nickname he kept his former surname in a slightly modified form. Eg Gaius Octavius ​​after adoption by a citizen, Gaius Iulius Caesar was Gaius Iulius Caesar Octavianus;
  • by recognizing special contributions to the state; this nickname was associated with merit then

For women, as I mentioned, the matter of names was much simpler. The daughters were always called the father’s family name in the female form, e.g. Julius Caesar’s daughter was called Julia. Sometimes the praenomenon was added, which was usually a numeral e.g. Tertia (Third) or the adjective Maior (Elder) and Minor (younger).

The women, when getting married, did not change their surnames and, additionally, adopted their husband’s nickname, e.g. Livia Augusti. During the empire, women often wore a double name after their parents, e.g. Aemilia Lepida. The form was often changed by introducing the suffix: -ina, -illa, -ulla, e.g. Agrippina, Urgulanilla.

Slaves kept their former name while in service. Sometimes names have been replaced by a description of where the slave comes from, e.g., Syrus (from Syria). Sometimes the slave was called a boy (puer) and was connected to the name of the owner, e.g. Titus puer.

In the case of the liberators, the situation was different. The liberator took the family name, and often also the name of the lord who liberated him. And so a slave named Afer liberated by a citizen by the name Publius Terentius Lucanus was called Publius Terentius Afer. The slave liberated by the woman received the praenomen and gentilicium of the liberating father, and in addition it was indicated to whom he owed his freedom, e.g. Marcus Livius, Augustae libertus.

The latter mechanism, the mechanism transferring the name from the master to the liberated slave, and from the patron to the acquiring customer citizenship, caused the whole system to crash at the moment Exodus of the Karakalli edict in 212 AD The emperor was called Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus, and he gave Roman citizenship to tens of millions of people for whom he became a patron. So they inherited his first and last name, and thus the overwhelming majority of the men living in the empire suddenly began to call themselves Marcus Aurelius. Hence, probably the name was Saint Augustine.

This shock caused the gradual disappearance of the traditional system of Roman names. Since then, a new system has been spreading, where the name and number of its members is set arbitrarily and according to the parents’ fantasies.

Adoption was widespread in Rome (and especially during the Empire period). The adopted man had to have a gentilicium adopting father because he almost belonged to his family. Often added cognomen created with nomen gentile, which was used by adopted before adoption, ending with -anus, e.g. Cornelius Scipio Aemislianus – he was called that because his father was Aemilius Paullus and he adopted him Cornelius Scipio. For the period of the Empire, it would be difficult to formulate precise rules according to which the names of adopted persons were created. However, they were always formed from the components of the name of the person before adoption and from the components of the name of the adopting person. Emperor Antonius Pius was originally called T. Aurelius Fulvius Boionius Arrius Antoninus, after his adoption by Hadrian (P.Aelius Hadrianus) he used the name T.Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus.

Sometimes the name of the tribune to which it belonged was also given by name. Below is a list of all 35 Roman stands with their names abbreviated:

Aemilia (Aem.), Aniensis (Ani.), Arnensis (Arn.), Camilia (Cam.), Claudia (Cla.), Clustumina (Clu.), Collina (Col.), Cornelia (Cor.) , Esquilina (Esq.), Fabia (Fab.), Falerna (Fal.), Galeria (Gal.), Horatia (Hor.), Lemonia (Lem.), Maecia (Mae.), Menenia (Men.), Oufentina (Ouf.), Palatina (Pal.), Papiria (Pap.), Poblilia (Pob.), Pollia (Pol.), Pomptina (Pom.), Pupinia (Pup.), Quirina (Qui.), Romilia (Rom. .), Sabatina (Sab.), Scaptia (Sca.), Sergia (Ser.), Stellatina (Ste.), Suburana (Sub.), Teretina (Ter.), Tromentina (Tro.), Velina (Vel.) , Voltinia (Vol.), Voturia (Vot.)

Analysis of the Roman name and surname

Marcus Aurelius Lucii f. Quinti n. tribu Galeria Antoninus Felix, domo Caesaraugusta

Marcuspraenomen

Aureliusnomen gentile – belonged to gens Aurelia

Lucia f (ilius)patronimicus – son of Lucius

Quinti n (epic) – grandfather – grandson of Quintus

tribu Galeriatribustribus from Galleria, region of Spain

Antoninuscognomen – belonged to the Antonin family

Felixagnomen – nickname “Happy”

domo Caesaraugusta – residence – ancient Zaragoza in Spain

The question is what Roman names have survived to our times. In fact, of the classic Praenomine, only one – Marek – is commonly found today, the others are rare. Interestingly, however, several nomina, treated in Rome as surnames, are now used as names, e.g. Mariusz or Juliusz. Similarly, in the case of female names Emilia, Klaudia, Julia, Kornelia – they are derived from Roman denominations in the female form.

Below is the complete list of praenomen, nomen, cognomen, and agnomen:

PRAENOMEN

Aulus · Amulius · Appius · Aulus · Caius · Camillus · Decius · Decimus · Drusus · Flavius ​​· Gaius · Galus · Gallus · Gnaeus · Herius · Kaeso · Lucius · Manius · Marcus · Numerius · Oppius · Postumus · Publius · Quintus · Secundus · Servius · Sextus · Spurius · Tertius · Tiberius · Titus · Vibius

NOMEN

Acilius · Aedinius · Albatius · Allectius · Amatius · Antius · Antonius · Arminius · Armenius · Arrius · Artorius · Asinius · Asintius · Ateius · Atius · Atilius · Atrius · Attius · Aulus · Aurelius · Ausonius · Atronius · Avisius · Barrius · Blandius · Bruccius · Bruttius · Calatorius · Calidius · Calpurnius · Calventius · Camillius · Camilius · Camelius · Caprenius · Carius · Caristanius · Cispius · Claudius · Clodius · Clovius · Cluntius · Corninius · Cosconius · Crispus · Curius · Curtius · Decumius · Desticius · Didius · Dillius · Domitius · Dossenius · Duccius · Duronius · Egnatius · Epidius · Equitius · Fabius · Fadius · Falerius · Favonius · Fenius · Festinius · Flaccus · Flavius ​​· Flavus · Florius · Floronius · Fulcinius · Fulvius · Fundanus · Furius · Gabinius · Galerius · Gallus · Gavius ​​· Gellius · Granius · Grattius · Gratidius · Helv etius · Helvius · Herennius · Herminius · Horatius · Hortensius · Hosidius · Iulius · Iunius · Iustus · Iuventius · Laetonius · Lafrenius · Lampronius · Liburnius · Licinius · Ligustinius · Livius · Longinius · Loreius · Lucius · Luciliusus · Lus Maelius · Mallius · Mamilius · Manlius · Manilius · Marcius · Marius · Matius · Maximus · Memmius · Messienus · Metilius · Milonius · Minucius · Minicius · Modius · Mucius · Munatius · Munius · Murrius · Naevius · Nasennius · Nemetorius · Nepius · Nigidius Nigilius · Nipius · Norbanus · Novius · Numerius · Olcinius · Oppius · Opsius · Oranius · Otacilius · Palpellius · Papinius · Papirius · Pescennius · Petellius · Petilius · Petillius · Petronius · Pinarius · Piscius · Placidius · Plautius · Plinili · Plot Pomponius · Pomptinus · Pontidius · Pontius · Popidius · Portius · Postumius · Paesentius · Publicius · Publius · Pupius · Quintilius · Quintius · Quirinius · Rabirius · Rufius · Rufus · Rusonius · Rutilius · Sabucius · Sallustius · Salonius · Salvius · Scribonius · Secundius · Seius · Sempronius · Sennius · Sentius · Septimius · Sepunius · Sepurcius · Sergius · Servgi · Sextilius · Sextius · Sidonius · Silius · Socellius · Sornatius · Spurius · Statius · Stertinius · Suedius · Sulpicius · Tadius · Tanicius · Tertinius · Tettidius · Tettienus · Tettius · Titiedius · Titius · Titinius · Trebatius · Treususlius · Treususlius · Tullius · Ulpius · Umbrenius · Umbrius · Vagionius · Vagnius · Valerius · Varius · Vassenius · Vatinius · Vedius · Velius · Veranius · Verecundius · Vergilius · Vesenius · Vesuvius · Vibenius · Vibidius · Victricius · Viducius · Vinic · Volaginius · Volcatius · Volumnius · Volusius

COGNOMEN

Abercius · Abito · Acacius · Acaunus · Achaicus · Acilianus · Adauctus · Adepphius · Adjutor · Adranos · Adventus · Aeacus · Aebutus · Aemilianus · Afer · Agaptus · Agatopus · Agelastus · Agorix · Agrippa · ​​Agustalis · Ahala · Ahenobarbus · Albanus · Albinius · Albinus · Albucius · Alethius · Allectus · Aluredes · Alypius · Amandus · Amantius · Ambrosius · Amor · Amphion · Anatolius · Ancus · Andronicus · Angelus · Antius · Anullinus · Apell · Aper · Apollonarius · Aponius · Aquila · Aquilius · Aquillius · Aratus · Arcadius · Arcavius ​​· Archarius · Arius · Armiger · Arminus · Arpagius · Arrianus · Arruntius · Aruns · Arvina · Asellio · Asina · Asprenas · Asprenus · Assanius · Audaios · Audens · Augendus · Augurnus · Augurius · Augustalis · Augustanus · Augustus · Auila · Aurelianus · Aurelius · Ausonius · Auxentius · Auxientius · Auxilius · Avienus · Avitus · Balbillus · Balbus · Balduinus · Barbatus · Baro · Bassus · Bato · Belenus · Belisarius · Bellator · Belletor · Bellicus · Bellus · Betto · Bibaculus · Bitucus · Blandus · Bodenius · Bolanus · Bonifatius · Bonosus · Bonus · Bradua · Brocchus · Bromid · Bruccius · Brucetus · Bruscius · Brutus · Buccio · Bulla · Burcanius · Burrus · Buteo · Caecilianus · Caecina · Caecus · Caelistis · Caelestius · Caelianus · Caelinus · Caepio · Caerellius · Caesar · Calacicus · Calatinus · Cald · Caligula · Callisunus · Calogerus · Calpornius · Calpurnianus · Calpurnis · Calvinus · Calvus · Camerius · Camillus · Campanus · Candidianus · Candidus · Candidius · Canio · Canisius · Cantaber · Capito · Capiton · Caprarius · Caracturus · Carantus · Carbo · Carius · Carnifex · Carus · Casca · Cassianus · Castinus · Castorius · Castus · Catianus · Catilina · Cato · Cato nius · Catullus · Catulus · Catus · Cecilianus · Celatus · Celer · Celsus · Cenaeus · Cencius · Censorinus · Censorius · Centumalus · Cerialis · Cerinthus · Cerularius · Cervianus · Cervidus · Cethegus · Chlorus · Christianus · Cicero · Cico · Cico · Cico Cinnianus · Cita · Cittinus · Civilis · Clarus · Classicianus · Claudianus · Clemens · Clement · Clodian · Clodianus · Cogitatus · Colias · Collatinus · Columella · Comitianus · Comitinus · Commidius · Commidus · Commius · Commodus · Concessus · Congrio · Constans · Constant Corbulo · Cordus · Cornix · Cornutus · Corvinus · Corvus · Cotentinus · Cotta · Crassus · Cremutius · Crescentius · Cresces · Crispian · Crispin · Crispus · Crito · Crotilo · Cucuphas · Culleolus · Cumanus · Cunobarrus · Cypitasus Cyricus · Dacien · Dagwalus · Dalmatius · Dama · Damasippus · Damasus · Damian · Dannicus · Dardanius · Dardanus · Decentius · Decianus · Decmitius · Decmus · Dexion · Dexippus · Didicus · Dignus · Dio · Diocletianus · Diocourides · Disertus · Docilinus · Docilus · Dolabella · Dominicus · Domitianus · Donatianus · Donatus · Donicus · Dorotheus · Drusulitus · Durio · Durus · Duvianus · Eborius · Eburnus · Ecdicius · Eclectus · Egbuttius · Egnatius · Elerius · Eliphas · Elpidius · Elvorix · Emeritus · Encratis · Ennecus · Ennius · Ennodius · Eonus · Epidianus · Epimachus · Epolonius · Epolonius · Eugenius · Eugenus · Eulogius · Eumenius · Eunapius · Euphemius · Eustacius · Eutherius · Evodius · Excingus · Exsupereus · Exuperantius · Exupertus · Fabianus · Fabillus · Facilis · Fadus · Fagus · Falco · Falconius · Familis · Faxis · Faustinianus · Faustinius · Faustus · Faventinus · Felicissimus · Felissimus · Felix · Ferentinus · Ferreolius · Festus · Fidelis · Figulus · Fimbria · Fimus · Firminus · Firmus · Flaccus · Flavian · Flavianus · Flavillus · Flavinus · Florens · Florentius · Florianus · Florus · Forianus · Fortunatus · Fraucus · Fredisius · Frigidian · Frontalis · Frontinus · Frontinus Fructosis · Frugi · Frugius · Frumentius · Fullofaudes · Fulvianus · Furius · Fuscinus · Fuscus · Gaianus · Gaius · Gala · Galarius · Galenus · Galerus · Gallio · Gallus · Galvisius · Garilianus · Gaurus · Gavros · Gavrus · Gelasius · Gellius · Gemellus Geminianus · Generidus · Genesius · Genialis · Gennadius · Gerardus · Germanus · Germanicus · Gessius · Geta · Getha · Glabrio · Glaucia · Globulus · Gluvias · Glycia · Gordian · Gordianus · Gordio · Gorgonius · Gracchus · Gracilis · Gratian · Gratidian Gregorius · Grumio · Gualterus · Gryllus · Habitus · Hadrianus · Hardalio · Haterius · Helvius · Herculius · Herenus · H erma · Hermina · Hesychius · Hiberus · Hilario · Hilaris · Hilarius · Hirpinius · Hirrus · Homullus · Honoratus · Horatius · Hortensis · Hortensius · Hortensus · Hosidius · Humilus · Hybrida · Iacomus · Igennus · Ignatius · Indaletius · Ingenin · Ingenin Iocundus · Iovinus · Irenaeus · Isatis · Italicus · Ivmarus · Ianuarius · Iavolenus · Iovinianus · Iovinus · Iovius · Iuba · Iulian · Iulianus · Iuncinus · Iuncus · Iunianus · Iustianus · Iustinianus · Iustinus · Lustus Laenas · Laetinianus · Laevinus · Larcius · Lartius · Lateranus · Latinius · Laurentius · Leddicus · Lentullus · Lentulus · Leontius · Lepidus · Lepontus · Leptis · Liberalis · Libo · Licinianus · Licinius · Ligur · Ligustinus · Letusus · Letusus Litumaris · Livianus · Livigenus · Longinus · Lovernius · Lucan · Lucanus · Lucianus · Lucilianus Lucretius · Lucta cus · Lucullus · Lunaris · Luonercus · Lupercus · Lupicinus · Lupinus · Lupis · Lurco · Lurio · Lutherius · Lutorius · Maccalus · Macrinus · Macro · Mactator · Maecenus · Maecius · Magnentius · Magnus · Maius · Major · Malchus · Mallus · Mancinus · Manlius · Mansuetus · Marcallas · Marcellinus · Marcellus · Marcialis · Marcipor · Margarita · Marinianus · Marinus · Maritialis · Maritimus · Marius · Maro · Marsallas · Marsicus · Marsus · Marsyas · Martial · Martialis · Martianus · Martinus · Martius · Martyrius · Marullinus · Marullus · Maternus · Matho · Mauricius · Maursus · Maximian · Maximianus · Maximinius · Maximinus · Maximus · Medullinus · Megellus · Melissus · Melitus · Mellitus · Melus · Meminius · Memmius · Memor · Mercator · Mercurialis · Mercuralaus · Merula Messor · Metellus · Metilius · Metunus · Micianus · Mico · Micon · Milonius · Minervalis · Minianus · Minicianus · Moderatus · Molacus · Momus · Montanus · Montaus · Mordanticus · Mucianus · Muco · Muncius · Murena · Mus · Musa · Musicus · Mutilus · Mutius · Nabor · Naevius · Narcissus · Narses · Nasica · Naso · Natalinus · Natalis · Naucratius · Nazarius · Nectaridus · Nelius · Nemesianus · Nemnogenus · Neneus · Nennius · Nepos · Nero · Nertomarus · Nerva · Nicasius · Nicetius · Nigellus · Niger · Nigidius · Nigrinus · Niraemius · Nolus · Nonius · Noster · Novation · Novellius · Numianus · Numianus · Octavian · Octavianus · Octobrianus · Olennius · Olympicus · Opilio · Opimius · Description · Optatus · Orientalis · Orientius · Orissus · Orosius · Osterianus · Otho · Ovinus · Pacatianus · Pachomius · Pacuvianus · Paenula · Paetinus · Paetus · Palicamus · Pampus · Pansa · Pantensus · Panther · Panthera · Papinian · Papus · Paratus · Parnesius · Pascentius · Pastor · Paterculus · Paternus · P atiens · Patricius · Paulinus · Paullus · Pavo · Pelagius · Pennus · Peregrinus · Perennis · Perpenna · Perperna · Pertacus · Pertinax · Petasius · Petreius · Petronax · Petrus · Philippus · Photius · Pictor · Pilatus · Pilus · Pinarius · Piso · Pius · Placidus · Planta · Plautis · Plautius · Plautus · Pleminius · Pollienus · Pollio · Polus · Polybius · Pompolussa · Pomponius · Poplicola · Porcus · Porphyrius · Postumianus · Postumus · Potitus · Praetextus · Prilidianus · Primanus · Primulus · Prusci · Pruscius Priscillian · Priscillianus · Priscus · Probus · Processus · Proceus · Proculus · Propertius · Protacius · Protus · Proxsimus · Publianus · Publicola · Publicus · Pudens · Pudentius · Pulcher · Pulcherius · Pullus · Pusinnus · Pustula · Quartinus · Quarto · Quatruus Quietus · Quintilianus · Quintilius · Quintillius · Quintillus · Quiriac · Quiricus · Quirinalis · Ramio · Ra mirus · Ravilla · Reburrus · Rectus · Regillus · Reginus · Regulus · Remigius · Remus · Renatus · Respectus · Restitutus · Rex · Ripanus · Rogatus · Rogelius · Romanus · Romulianus · Romulus · Roscius · Rufinianus · Rufinus · Rufrius · Rufus · Rufus · Rufus Ruricius · Ruso · Rusticus · Rutilianus · Sabellius · Sabinianus · Sabinus · Sacerdos · Saenus · Salinator · Salonianus · Saloninus · Salonius · Salvian · Salvianus · Salvius · Sanctus · Sandilianus · Sanga · Sarimarcus · Sarrius · Saturninus · Saunio · Scanio · Scanio · Scanio Scaro · Scato · Scaurus · Schlerus · Scipio · Scribonianus · Scrofa · Sebastianus · Secundas · Segestes · Sejanus · Sellic · Seneca · Senecianus · Senecio · Senilis · Senopianus · Sentius · Septimianus · Sergius · Seronatus · Serranus · Sertorius · Servanus Servilius · Seuso · Severlinus · Severus · Sevso · Siculus · Sidonius · Sigilis · Silanus · Silius · Silo · Silus · Silvanus · Similis · Simo · Simplicianus · Siricus · Sisenna · Sisinnius · Sita · Sollemnis · Sorex · Sorio · Sosius · Sotericus · Soulinus · Sparticus · Spendius · Speratus · Statius · Stichus · Strabo · Sudrenus · Suilius · Sulinus · Sulla · Superbus · Superstes · Sura · Surinus · Surius · Surus · Sylla · Sylvian · Sylvius · Symmachus · Symphorian · Sympronian · Synistor · Synnodus · Tacitus · Taenaris · Tancinus · Tanicus · Tarquinius · Tarsicius · Tasius · Tatian · Taurinus · Terente · Tertullian · Tertullianus · Tertulus · Tetricus · Tetullianus · Thrasea · Tiberillus · Tiberinus · Tibullus · Tiburs · Tiburtius · Ticinius · Titianus · Titillus · Torquatus · Toutius · Traianus · Trailus · Tranio · Tranquillus · Trebellibon · Tremorinus · Trenico · Trenus · Triarius · Trifer · Triferus · Trimalchio · Trogus · Trupo · Tuccianu s · Tuditanus · Tullius · Tullas · Tullius · Turibius · Turpilianus · Turpilinus · Turpilias · Tuticanus · Tutor · Typhoeus · Tyranus · Ulfila · Ulixes · Ulpianus · Umbonius · Urbicus · Ursacius · Ursinus · Ursus · Uticensis Valentinus · Valerian · Valerianus · Valgus · Varialus · Varro · Varus · Vatia · Vedrix · Vegetius · Velius · Velus · Venantius · Venator · Ventor · Venustinius · Vepgenus · Veranius · Verecundus · Vergilius · Verinus · Verres · Verrucosis · Verullus Verus · Vespasianus · Vespillo · Vestinus · Vestorius · Vetranio · Vettonianus · Veturius · Viator · Vibennis · Vibius · Vibullius · Victor · Victorinus · Victricius · Vincentius · Vindex · Vinicianus · Vipsanius · Virginius · Viridio · Vitalinus · Virion Vitalis · Vitoricus · Vitulus · Vitus · Vocula · Volturcius · Volusenus · Volusianus · Vonones · Vopiscus · Votepor ix · Vulso · Zeno · Zoilus · Zosimus

AGNOMEN

Africanus · Allobrogicus · Asiaticus · Atticus · Augustus (for Emperors) – Balearicus · Briganticus · Britannicus · Caligula · Creticus · Dalmaticus · Gaetulicus · Gallicus · Germanicus · Helveticus · Imperator · Isauricus · Italicus · Macedonicus · Nasica · Nero · Numidicus · Paulus · Sparticus

Sources

  • Johnston Whetstone Harold, The Private Life of the Romans
  • Milewski T., Społeczeństwo rzymskie w świetle imiennictwa osobowego, [w:] Filomata nr 143, December 1960
  • Salway Benet, What's in a Name? A Survey of Roman Onomastic Practice from c. 700 B.C. to A.D. 700
  • Winniczuk Lidia, Ludzie, zwyczaje i obyczaje starożytnej Grecji i Rzymu, PWN, Warszawa 1983
  • Winniczuk Lidia, Mały słownik kultury antycznej: Grecja, Rzym, 1968
  • Wipszycka Ewa, Vademecum historyka starożytnej Grecji i Rzymu, 1985

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