During its existence ancient Rome underwent many systemic changes, ranging from the monarchy, the republic, the empire, and then the dominate. Those were also accompanied by social and cultural changes. Building the power took Roman Empire many centuries.
As a result of the conquest, the Roman state was constantly expanding its borders. In view of the ever-expanding area and population, its management became increasingly difficult, which required systemic changes and reforms.
The Roman administration, proper for the city of Rome, was characterized by the lack of professional officials and hence it was difficult to create forms of managing such a huge territory. The provinces were managed by consuls. The tax collection was ruthlessness and often dishonest, what led to the destruction of a significant part of small and medium-sized peasants – farmers.
During the III and II centuries BCE great landed properties arose, latifundia, at the expense of these small farmers. The owners of the latifundium used the work of slaves, who were provided by Roman conquests. In a society so strongly diversified in terms of law and state of ownership, there were internal social struggles and reform demands. Law was being modernized, officials were being changed and the administration was being transformed.
Historia Powszechna t. 4. Konsolidacja hellenizmu. Początki Rzymu i przemiany świata klasycznego, kons. prof. dr hab. E. Papuci-Władyka, prof. dr hab. J. Ostrowski
Historia Powszechna t. 5. Epoka Augusta i Cesarstwo Rzymskie, kons. prof. dr hab. E. Papuci-Władyka, prof. dr hab. J. Ostrowski
Wolski Józef, Historia Powszechna – Starożytność, Warszawa 2007
Ziółkowski Adam, Historia Rzymu, Poznań 2008
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