Cologne was founded in the 1st century CE through the Romans, and they can be traced to this day. An example of this is the remains of the defensive walls located within today’s city centre.
Year 63 BCE is remembered mainly because of the consulate of the Cicero and the Conspiracy of Catiline. However, those were obviously not the only significant events of this year. One of his most interesting episodes was the law concerning the division of land in Rome, proposed by Servilius Rullus.
When gradually in the east of the Hellenistic world, after the fall of the Pergamon Kingdom and the defeat of Mithridates VI Eupator due to Rome, the established order collapsed, on the outskirts of the Roman Empire, the few countries that were boldly navigating between Rome and the Parthian Empire began to function boldly. One of them was the Kingdom of Comagene, which had been developing since the fall of the Seleucids.
Although the center of the ancient world after the Hellenistic period due to the dynamically “spreading” Rome moved to the west of the Mediterranean, in the east remained religious centers “ruling” the minds of people of that world. Everyone remembers the Oracle of Delphi, the Great Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, a strange mostly incomprehensible to the ancient worship of the one God of Jews, the mysterious world of the Gods of Egypt.
Pergamon (today’s Turkish Bergama) is a wonderful Hellenistic city radiating its culture to the entire east of the Mediterranean in ancient times. The Pergamon Acropolis belonged to the greatest centers of the ancient world. Today, after the most famous Hellenistic monuments of the city from the time of Eumenes II Attalida, the descendant of the diadochs is scarce and basically you can only admire the places where they were.